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Simon Bolivar

This patient was "victor in 100 battles and founder of three republics in the continent of America." He died at age 47 of a mysterious illness, the nature and treatment of which have been a source of controversy for nearly two centuries. ( read more )

 John Paul Jones

This patient is credited with having given the U.S. Navy "its earliest traditions of heroism and victory." He was born in Kirkbean, Scotland, in July 1747, went to sea as an apprentice at  the age of 13, and spent the next three decades "riding the whirlwind and directing the storm" of a life aboard sailing ships. (read more)


This patient ruled Egypt during the twilight of the house of the Thutmosids as a revolutionary and an iconoclast. (read more)


President Lincoln
President Lincoln

This year’s program examines the treatment U.S. president Abraham Lincoln received after being hit by an assassin’s bullet in 1865.
(read more)

Racial Characteristics

Booker T. Washington

This patient was one of the most admired Americans of his time. Born a slave, he was the successor of Frederick Douglass as leader and spokesman for black America in the aftermath of the Civil War.
(read more)

Christopher Columbus

The patient’s illness began abruptly at age 41 with an attack of “the gout” during a violent storm on his return from the first of four voyages of discovery.
(read more)


Heinrich Schlieman

Except for intermittent ear aches (apparently bilateral), the patient had enjoyed excellent health until age 54... (read more)


Florence Nightingale

The patient's illness began at age 35 years. She was in Scutari, Turkey at the time, working twenty or more hours a day as an army nurse and hospital administrator under extraordinarily squalid and mentally and physically exhausting conditions. (read more)




A 69 year-old man presented with chronic low-grade fever, edema, abdominal pain, insatiable hunger pangs, shortness and foulness of breath... (read more)



Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc was born at Domremy in what is now Lorraine around 1412. (read more)




In the month of October, a 63-year old man developed postprandial abdominal pain and vomiting. (read more)




A 35 year old man presented with fever, rash and anasarca. His illness began suddenly in late November during the course of a local epidemic of a similar disease.




A 65 year old man is seen because of fever, headache, sore throat and vomiting. The patient is a resident of Athens, Greece. (read more)



George A. Custer

General George A. Custer was a 36-year-old, highly-decorated military officer.  (read more)



Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven was a 56-year-old man who presented with fever and chills associated with ascites, abdominal pain and a hacking cough with scant hemoptysis. (read more)



Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great, a 32-year-old veteran, began to feel poorly following an evening of heavy alcohol intake. (read more)



Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe was a 40-year-old man who was brought to an emergency room for evaluation of lethargy and confusion and admitted to the hospital for observation.  (read more)